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Migrants in Disaster Risk Reduction: Practices for Inclusion

Migrants in Disaster Risk Reduction: Practices for Inclusion

In today’s increasingly globalized and mobile societies, internal and international migrants, refugees and asylum seekers represent a significant share of the population of cities and countries. This publication presents experiences from researchers and practitioners from a variety of geographical contexts on how they have been included and have participated in disaster prevention, preparedness, response and recovery activities. It aims to highlight the importance and benefits of, as well as options for, integrating migrants into decision-making, policy-setting and implementation of disaster risk reduction initiatives. This publication builds upon the knowledge and experiences gathered through the Migrants In Countries In Crisis (MICIC) Initiative, a global state-led process for which IOM has been serving as Secretariat, and the Council of Europe’s EUR-OPA programme on “Migrants, asylum seekers and refugees in the context of major risks prevention and management”.

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2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

In September 2015, the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda was adopted, and for the first time, migration was included in mainstream global development policy. With the objective of communicating how IOM identifies migration in the 2030 Agenda to stakeholders and the wider public, and to shed light on the complex challenges and opportunities that accompany the migration-related targets, this IOM publication aims to showcase how different areas of migration are addressed in the Sustainable Development Goals.

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Extreme Heat and Migration

Extreme Heat and Migration

The impacts of climate change on global temperatures profoundly affect people’s ability to sustain their livelihoods as well as their health; both of these dimensions in turn influence the migration of people. Indeed, increasing heat related to climate change is likely to result in more disruptive events, such as frequent droughts, wildfires, episodes of extreme temperatures and heat waves. Such events are already directly and indirectly displacing large numbers of people each year and likely to lead to the migration of more people in the future. For the first time, this IOM infosheet explores the links between extreme heat and migration and provides an overview of the challenges faced, as well as possible ways to address them.

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Access to justice for migrant workers in South-East Asia

Access to justice for migrant workers in South-East Asia

This report analyses access to justice for migrant workers in South-East Asia and provides recommendations for improving complaint mechanisms for labour rights abuses. Providing migrant workers with fair access to justice in South-East Asia is a key gap remaining in protecting them from exploitation and abuse. Because of the obstacles that they face to obtaining assistance through official mechanisms, migrants are often highly dependent on informal support, even when the abuses they endure are severe in nature. As a result, the data collected on migrant worker complaints within the region has been very limited to date. This report helps to fill the knowledge gap by analysing data on complainants assisted by Migrant Worker Resource Centres from 2011 to 2015. Over 1,000 cases involving more than 7,000 women and men migrant workers were documented across five countries, establishing the largest regional dataset of migrant worker complaints compiled within South-East Asia. The analysis reveals that progress has been achieved in facilitating access to justice for migrants but that major challenges remain in providing them with fair and responsive remedies.

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Attracting skilled international migrants to China: A review and comparison of policies and practices

Attracting skilled international migrants to China: A review and comparison of policies and practices

China is actively pursuing a transformation from an export-oriented, low-skilled and labour-intensive economy towards a science, technology and innovation-based economy. Such transformation inevitably spurs rapid growth in the demand for high skilled workers. More than ever committed to globalization, the Chinese government is attaching more importance to the attraction of foreign talents who not only bring valuable resources to help boost China’s economic development but also contribute to building and strengthening the relationship between China and the rest of the world. Working towards this objective of competing for global talent, China has become ever more aware of the urgent need for the introduction of specific schemes and policies to attract skilled international migrants. The study on attracting skilled international migrants to China: A review and comparison of policies and practices was conducted under the EU–China Dialogue on Migration and Mobility Support Project, a collaboration between the International Labour Organization and the International Organization for Migration, funded by the European Union. It reviews the existing policies and practices of China concerning the attraction of foreign professionals and other skilled international migrants with a comparative analysis of talent attraction policies and their outcomes in Germany, Japan, and Singapore. Based on a comparative study, recommendations are put forward for China to improve its foreign talent policies and practices in order to be more successful in the international competition for talents.

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Policy Brief on Practices and Regulations of Recruitment to Domestic Work

Policy Brief on Practices and Regulations of Recruitment to Domestic Work

The policy brief highlights common recruitment practices and regulations observed along recruitment pathways to domestic work in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Jordan and Lebanon. The purpose of this policy brief is to respond to the rising interest in improving recruitment practices and regulations in order to reduce vulnerability to human trafficking and forced labour. In some cases, examples from other regions have been highlighted. Given the complexity of cross jurisdictional recruitment practices and regulation this brief presents common practices and regulations, pointing to where and how they can constitute better practices. The mapping and analysis are based on research and lessons learned from the ILO’s Work in Freedom Programme recruitment pilots within South Asia or from South Asia to the Middle East. There are two sections to this brief, first – describing common recruitment practices and regulations and second – giving examples of better recruitment practices and corresponding regulations.

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Policy Brief on Practices and Regulations of Recruitment to Garment Work

Policy Brief on Practices and Regulations of Recruitment to Garment Work

The policy brief maps common recruitment practices and regulations observed along recruitment pathways to garment and textile work in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Jordan and Lebanon. This policy brief responds to a growing interest among policymakers and practitioners in improving recruitment practices and regulations with an eye to reducing vulnerability to human trafficking and forced labour among girl and women migrants in the garment and textile work sector. Given the complexity of cross jurisdictional and multi-tier recruitment practices and regulations, this brief looks at common practices and regulations, pointing to where and how they can constitute better practices. The mapping and analysis are based on research and lessons learned from the ILO’s Work in Freedom Programme recruitment pilots within South Asia and/or from South Asia to the Middle East. There are two sections to this brief, first – describing common recruitment practices and regulations, and second – giving examples of better recruitment practices and corresponding regulations.

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Building Labour Migration Policy Coherence in Myanmar

Building Labour Migration Policy Coherence in Myanmar

This working paper provides an overview of international labour migration governance in Myanmar, detailing the most relevant actors and policies at Union/National level and how they presently do or do not intersect, coordinate, and cooperate together. It also discusses where and how the governance of international migration can be more strongly linked to other policy domains, exploring to what extent labour migration policy is consistent with and contributing to national development plans and how it relates to other policy areas such as poverty reduction, rural development, social protection, women’s empowerment and others. By tracing out intersections and overlaps, both actual and possible, between different policies, policy areas, and the actors responsible for formulating and implementing them, this paper seeks to lay the groundwork for promoting greater policy coherence in the governance of international labour migration.

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Statistics on Labor Migration within the Asia-Pacific Region

Statistics on Labor Migration within the Asia-Pacific Region

Red Cross Red Crescent Manila Conference on Labor Migration 2015 / Manila, Philippines / 12-13 May 2015

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ILO Migration Programme in Asia and the Pacific - Protecting women and men migrant workers and promoting effective governance of labour migration

ILO Migration Programme in Asia and the Pacific - Protecting women and men migrant workers and promoting effective governance of labour migration

As per the most recent estimates, in 2013 there are 150.3 million migrants in the world who are economically active. Over half – 83.7 million – are men, and 66.6 million, women. Asia-Pacific hosts 17.2 per cent of migrant workers (25.5 million persons) (ILO, 2016). The Arab States have the highest proportion of migrant workers to all workers (35.6 per cent) and hosts 11.7 per cent of migrant workers worldwide, most of them from Asia. Labour migration largely occurs under temporary migration regimes and for less skilled work. Migrants often fill jobs unattractive to nationals and some occupations are highly gendered. Asia is also an important source region for skilled workers (in particular China, India and the Philippines). In 2013, 3 out 10 new immigrants to the OECD came from Asia (OECD, 2015).

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Migrant Workers and Social Protection in ASEAN: Moving Towards a Regional Standard?

Migrant Workers and Social Protection in ASEAN: Moving Towards a Regional Standard?

The number of migrants originating from ASEAN member states is estimated at 13.5 million, 39 percent (5.3 million) of whom are working in other ASEAN countries. An estimated 60% of the working population in these countries work in informal sectors of the economy that are not fully covered by labor laws, let alone social protection measures. In addition, nascent social protection systems in these countries provide little coverage in case of loss of worker income, and standards are generally poorly enforced. In this context, migrant social protection in ASEAN has rarely been explored. This paper considers global standards and themes regarding migrant social protection before outlining case studies of Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. The paper shows how migrants rarely access social protection in ASEAN and recommends regional action by ASEAN member states to holistically remedy this.

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Women’s Labour Migration from Asia  and the Pacific: Opportunities and Challenges

Women’s Labour Migration from Asia and the Pacific: Opportunities and Challenges

In an era of unprecedented human mobility, migration from and within the Asia-Pacific region has assumed gendered dimensions, with implications for migration flows, trends and patterns. Gender roles, inequalities and relations affect who migrates, why and how, and migration also has significant implications for women migrant workers (WMWs) themselves. Migration can provide opportunities to improve their lives and that of their families, help them escape from social and economic vulnerabilities, and offer avenues for greater autonomy and empowerment. Migration also, however, exposes these women to different types of vulnerabilities, discrimination and risk (Sijapati and Nair, 2014), both in their origin and destination countries, particularly where such migration carries a stigma and patriarchal norms are deep-seated. For the broader society, the consequential effects of women’s increased mobility have been significant. Sending countries have benefitted from higher inflows of remittances and changes in societal and family relations, particularly as they relate to gender roles and relations. For receiving countries, the welfare gains have been considerable, in the form of increased labour supply, opportunities for native women to enter the workforce and child- and elder-care possibilities, especially in contexts where such services are limited. While countries in the region have adopted various measures to address the concerns of women migrants nationally, bilaterally and regionally, the ability to highlight issues concerning women migrant workers in the Beijing+20 discussions and in the formulation of the post-2015 development agenda provides opportunities for greater impact on gender equality and women’s empowerment. A few key areas for consideration include: greater protection for women migrant workers; measures to maximize the potential of remittances for the workers, their families and beyond; conducive policy environments, especially in destination countries; and improvements in information, evidence and knowledge base.

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Asia-Pacific Migration Report 2015: Migrants' Contributions to Development

Asia-Pacific Migration Report 2015: Migrants' Contributions to Development

International migration is a major driver of social and economic change in the contemporary Asia-Pacific region. In 2013, of the estimated 231.5 million migrants in the world, over 59 million were found in countries of this region, an increase of almost 7 million compared to 1990. Over 95 million migrants came from countries in Asia or the Pacific, an almost 50 per cent increase compared to 1990. As the economies of the region further develop and the demographic transition continues at varying speeds, people are increasingly likely to migrate as both the demand for migrant labour and the supply of people willing and able to migrate will grow. Migration is therefore a structural reality in the Asia-Pacific region, both today and in the years to come. To manage this growing migratory trend in such a way as to ensure that it brings positive benefits to all concerned, countries in the Asia-Pacific region need to establish policies grounded in principles of respect for human rights, decent work and social protection for all, migrants and nationals alike.

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Migration Health Research to advance evidence based policy and practice in Sri Lanka

Migration Health Research to advance evidence based policy and practice in Sri Lanka

Despite the growing recognition of the importance that migration health plays in advancing global health and sustainable development goals, there is a paucity of technical guidance and “lessons learned” documents to guide Member States, international organizations, academia, civil society and other stakeholders seeking to develop effective migration health policies and interventions using evidence-based approaches. Governments today are faced with the challenge of integrating health needs of migrants into national plans, policies and strategies as outlined in the 61st World Health Assembly Resolution on Health of Migrants. Studying the health of migrants residing within and crossing national borders, across diverse linguistic and cultural gradients and with differing legal status pose challenges in evidence generation. The International Organization for Migration’s migration health research series aims at sharing high-yield scientific papers and analytical commentaries aimed at advancing migration health policy and practice at national, regional and global levels. The first book of the series is a two-part volume profiling the development of the National Migration Health Policy and intervention framework in Sri Lanka, which to a large extent was driven by an evidence-informed, multisectoral approach.

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Vulnerability and exploitation along the Balkan route: Identifying victims of human trafficking in Serbia

Vulnerability and exploitation along the Balkan route: Identifying victims of human trafficking in Serbia

In recent years, the flow of migrants and refugees through the Balkans has significantly increased. To date, there has been limited empirical evidence of when, why and how vulnerability to human trafficking arises in mass movements of migrants and refugees. New patterns of vulnerability and exploitation challenge established procedures for identification of and assistance to trafficking victims. This paper presents different experiences of trafficked migrants and refugees who have moved to and through Serbia over the past two years, and explores challenges and barriers to their formal identification and assistance as victims of human trafficking. The paper concludes with specific recommendations on how government and civil society stakeholders may begin to work more effectively on this issue to and to better identify and assist trafficked migrants/refugees.

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IOM Middle East and North Africa Regional Strategy 2017–2020

IOM Middle East and North Africa Regional Strategy 2017–2020

The International Organization for Migration’s (IOM) Regional Strategy for the Middle East and North Africa sets out key objectives to guide IOM’s operations, strategic positioning and policy and advocacy work for the period from 2017 to 2020. While not a summary of the full breadth of IOM programming in the region, the objectives represent priority areas for action to improve the conditions and impacts of migration for individuals and societies, address acute and structural challenges in migration governance, and contribute to meeting international commitments and standards. The strategy aligns with the principles and objectives of the Migration Governance Framework, which was endorsed by IOM Member States in 2015. It also outlines subregional priorities for North Africa, the Mashreq and the Gulf countries and specifies cross-cutting issues and institutional principles that IOM adheres to throughout its work to maximize organizational effectiveness.

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International Dialogue on Migration No. 26 : Follow-up and review of Migration in the Sustainable development Goals

International Dialogue on Migration No. 26 : Follow-up and review of Migration in the Sustainable development Goals

This publication contains the report and complementary materials of the two workshops held in 2016 under the overarching theme “Follow-up and Review of Migration in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)” within the framework of the International Dialogue on Migration (IDM), IOM’s principal forum for migration policy dialogue. The two workshops were held in New York on 29 February and 1 March, and respectively in Geneva on 11 and 12 October 2016. The first workshop addressed the implications of migration being included in the Sustainable Development Goals, it discussed tools and mechanisms that could help Member States to measure progress on achieving relevant migration-related SDG targets, as well as it looked, inter alia, at options for “thematic review” of migration-related SDG targets and at the role of International Organizations in achieving the migration targets. Building on the conclusions of the first workshop, the second workshop assessed progress in the implementation of the migration-related SDGs. It discussed the state of migration policies one year after the adoption of the 2030 Agenda from the perspective of States and other stakeholders in the migration area, presented best practices in countries making progress on the migration-related SDGs, and looked at how can the institutional capacity of States to measure and report on progress on achieving the migration-related targets be improved. By dedicating its major policy discussion forum to discussions on implementation, follow-up and review of migration aspects of the SDGs, IOM wished to open a space for IOM Member States and relevant key players in migration and development area, to present strategies and measures that they are putting in place to achieve the migration-related targets, including good practices, challenges, lessons learned and areas that need support and shared experiences.

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Enhancing the Safety and Sustainability of the Return and Reintegration of Victims of Trafficking

Enhancing the Safety and Sustainability of the Return and Reintegration of Victims of Trafficking

This report follows on from the implementation of two distinct but complementary European Union-funded projects implemented by the International Organization for Migration (IOM): Coordinated Approach for the REintegration of victims of trafficking returning voluntarily to any third country (CARE project) and Transnational ACtion – Safe and sustainable return and reintegration for victims of Trafficking returning voluntarily to priority countries: Albania, Morocco and Ukraine (TACT project). The two projects involved a total of nine European Union Member States – Austria, Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom – committed to improving the return and reintegration programmes available for victims of trafficking, in order to make the process safer and more sustainable, as well as reduce the risks of re-trafficking. Bearing this objective in mind, IOM endeavoured through the implementation of both projects to develop, implement and fine-tune standard operating procedures for the return and reintegration of victims of trafficking, ensuring a continuum of care. This joint report aims to gather and share the lessons learned through the implementation of both projects, suggesting a way forward for the establishment of transnational referral mechanisms between European Union Member States and third countries. The issue of transnational referral mechanisms is a key priority in the current European Union anti-trafficking efforts, as mentioned in the European Union Anti-trafficking Strategy for the period 2012–2016.

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 A Comparative Thematic Mapping of Global Migration Initiatives: Lessons learned towards a Global Compact for safe, orderly and regular migration

A Comparative Thematic Mapping of Global Migration Initiatives: Lessons learned towards a Global Compact for safe, orderly and regular migration

This paper has been commissioned by the International Organization for Migration to inform and assist the Organization in its role in servicing the intergovernmental negotiations towards a global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration following the adoption of the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants by the United Nations General Assembly in September 2016. Its objective is to review issues, themes and recommendations/proposals made by previous global migration initiatives and critically analyse areas of convergence and key tension points over time. With that view, the paper provides a comparative thematic mapping structured along three main thematic clusters common to global migration initiatives: (a) minimizing the negative aspects of migration by addressing the drivers and consequences of forced and irregular migration, and combating smuggling and trafficking; (b) acknowledging and strengthening the positive effects of migration; and (c) protecting migrants’ rights and ensuring their well-being. By then, identifying the major sub-thematic issues included in these thematic clusters, the analysis highlights that global migration initiatives converge on a substantial number of sub-thematic issues. Divergences between them either denote thematic trends that have emerged over time or more inherent tension points on which agreement is not yet achieved, that is, the opening up of more legal avenues for migration, the consideration of low-skilled labour migration outside temporary migration policies and the ratification of the 1990 International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families. It concludes on the need for more knowledge-based research on the subject and on the lack of clear objectives and action plans for these initiatives calling for more evidence-based research.

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Promoting a common understanding of Migration Trends

Promoting a common understanding of Migration Trends

The primary goal of the paper is to propose a methodology to govern migration flows in an economically efficient and humane way. The proposal will introduce an alternative interpretation of economic migration flows that will allow for the classification of countries in potential departure and arrival countries, and more importantly to explain arrivals. The model will then be used – in substitution of the mechanical and unrealistic hypothesis that are presently adopted – to obtain a new procedure to jointly build labour market and demographic scenarios. The procedure will allow for the estimation of future labour needs and migration flows that will affect the European Union and countries characterized by the most significant declines in working-age population (WAP), as well as analyse the socioeconomic impacts of these migration flows. The same procedure will be done for Egypt, as a counter example of a country likely to send migrants. After discussing the extent to which migrations are the only possible solution to the structural lack of labour supply, the paper will present a detailed proposal on how to address, in a cooperative way, the mass migration that will take place from Africa to the European Union, both across the Mediterranean and increasingly through the Balkan countries.

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