This edition of Migration Policy Practice focuses on a range of themes, namely, migration and IT connectivity, the labour immigration system of Sweden, new migration and development strategies, and migration trends in the Arab region. The first article describes the ways in which information and communications technology revolution enables the creation of faster and more affordable unregulated migration pathways, particularly through the many smartphone apps that are available for people travelling to and through Europe. In the second article, authors argue that despite its flexibility, Sweden’s liberal, demand-driven policy for labour immigration from non-EU countries has often led migrant workers to vulnerable situations and has enabled employers to circumvent existing labour market regulations on decent working conditions and salaries. The third article revisits the ongoing debate on migration and development, by stressing the importance of policies that aim to improve migrants’ integration into the host countries. The last article briefly presents the key findings of the 2015 Situation Report on International Migration: Migration, Displacement and Development in a Changing Arab Region, published recently by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia and the International Organization for Migration. The report shows that, in general, borders in the region are closing rather than opening. In any scenario, migration, mobility and displacement in the Arab region will remain closely interrelated with and will impact neighbouring regions.
Climate change is a key concern for the international community. The links to environmental degradation and human mobility are increasingly understood, leading to calls for data on environmental migrants. However, meaningful data only exist on persons newly displaced by disasters within countries, as the environment being one of the several factors in the decision to migrate compounds the difficulty of quantifying these movements. This data briefing by IOM’s Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC) aims to provide an overview of existing data sources on environmental migration. This briefing identifies good and innovative practices on assessing the evidence to guide new and comparable data collection and support State actors in integrating human mobility in all its facets in adaptation, disaster response and disaster risk reduction planning in the context of environmental and climate change.
This publication contains the report and supplementary materials of the Conference on Migrants and Cities, which was held in Geneva, Switzerland, on 26 and 27 October 2015, within the framework of the International Dialogue on Migration (IDM), IOM’s principal forum for migration policy dialogue. The conference, which is the second in a series of global conferences organized by IOM following the 2013 Diaspora Ministerial Conference, set a new framework for the global dialogue on migration by involving all levels of migration governance and in which local authorities were the main interlocutors. The event discussed the significant link between migration and cities and affirmed the key role local authorities have in the global migration governance.
Jointly implemented with the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), the project involves the development of a policy-benchmarking framework to assess the extent to which national migration policies facilitate orderly, safe and well managed migration, as laid out in SDG Target 10.7. The framework is composed of over 70 indicators grouped under 5 different dimensions of migration governance, and draws upon the MiGOF categories. Research was conducted in 15 pilot countries, the results of which were released on 2 May, 2016 at IOM HQ in Geneva and 3 May, 2016 at GMDAC in Berlin. The aim is to replicate this initial exercise in a larger number of countries during a second phase of the project.
Meeting of Abu Dhabi Dialogue Senior Officials 11-12 May 2016, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) Final Report
Senior Officials representing member governments of the Abu Dhabi Dialogue among Asian Countries of Labor Origin and Destination (ADD) held a regular meeting on 11 and 12 May 2016 in Dubai, UAE. In attendance were observers from non-member governments, international organizations, academic and non-government organizations and private sector actors. This is the final report from the meeting including: Session 1 Models of labour recruitment in the Asia-GCC corridors; Session 2 Enhancing labour mobility in destination labour markets; Session 3 Reports on current ADD-sponsored bilateral and multilateral programs and initiatives; Session 4 Sharing of new initiatives undertaken by member governments with a view to identify future ADD-sponsored collaborative programs.
Senior Officials representing member governments of the Abu Dhabi Dialogue among Asian Countries of Labor Origin and Destination (ADD) held a regular meeting on 11 and 12 May 2016 in Dubai, UAE. In attendance were observers from non-member governments, international organizations, academic and non-government organizations and private sector actors. This joint communique includes the process of the meeting, enior officials’ proposed future programs and initiatives, as well as s recommendations to the 4th Ministerial Consultation and a draft agenda.
May edition of the AP Migration Community Update, highlighting news, updates and resources from our network.
The Royal Government of Cambodia and the Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training is pleased to launch the Labour Migration Policy for Cambodia 2015-2018. This Policy builds on the previous Policy on Labour Migration for Cambodia 2010-2015, expanding on the three main objectives of (1) formulation and implementation of rights-based and gender- sensitive policy and legislation through social dialogue at all levels; (2) protection and empowerment of men and women migrant workers regardless of their status through all stages of the migration process; and (3) harnessing labour migration and mobility to enhance social and economic development in Cambodia recognising that migrant workers are agents of innovation and development. The Policy includes clear goals related to migration and development, migration management and the protection of migrant workers, and specific actions designed to achieve these goals. The document also provides a structure for monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the policy, filling an identified gap in the implementation of the previous policy.
This report is the first assessment of the efficacy of the complaints mechanism available to migrant workers, and explores the complexities facing workers and authorities when a complaint is lodged. Assessment of the Complaints Mechanism for Cambodian Migrant Workers presents the results of an assessment that considered the legislation and policy governing migrant worker complaints and the experiences of migrant workers and authorities in navigating the complaints system.
This publication series documents and consolidates the outputs of the regional meetings to better inform employers’ activities, and summarizes the position of employers’ on the priority issues on labour migration in the ASEAN region. It gives the context of these priority areas as well as the policy position papers agreed upon as a result of the regional workshops.
This Policy Brief considers skills supply and demand in ASEAN in relation to women migrant workers, making recommendations to policy-makers, development partners, social partners and civil society that can improve access for women to skills development opportunities and better jobs. With ASEAN economic integration planning to introduce freer movement of skilled labour, there is a need to standardize and recognize qualifications and skills across the region to ensure efficient and mutually beneficial labour migration.
International Labour Conference, 105th Session, 2016 General Survey concerning the migrant workers instruments Third item on the agenda: Information and reports on the application of Conventions and Recommendations Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (articles 19, 22 and 35 of the Constitution) Contents: The impact of the instruments; Difficulties and prospects for ratification; Achieving the potential of the instruments
This Guide offers policy-makers and administrators a guide for evaluating how labour migration policies work in practice, based on documented experiences in ASEAN and other parts of the world. It starts with assessing the outcomes of labour market tests used to determine whether the migrant workers requested by employers are really needed. The second section discusses the recruitment process, and ways to assess the effectiveness of policies in terms of better outcomes in matching workers with jobs, as well as minimizing the cost of recruitment. The third section focuses on protection and outlines methods to assess how policies protect the wages and working conditions of migrant workers and deal complaints filed with government agencies. The fourth section reviews evidence on the impacts of migration on destination and origin countries, including on incomes, productivity, and non-economic factors such as crime and congestion. The fifth section points out the conceptual and practical difficulties in evaluating the various consequences of labour migration and lays out practical steps that national authorities can take to improve labour market testing, recruitment, labour market monitoring, and assessment of the overall impact. A final section reviews the experience of Malaysia in managing the admission and employment of foreign workers, and what light past research sheds on its impact on the Malaysian labour market and economy as a whole.
This policy paper: (i) provides an overview of the global situation of social security provisions for domestic workers in 163 countries; (ii) analyses trends, policies and gaps in terms of legal and effective social security coverage for domestic workers; (iii) describes and analyses the configuration of social security schemes for domestic workers, such as their institutional organization, financing and administration; (iv) informs on challenges to extending coverage; and (v) provides a compilation and description of international practices of social security schemes for the domestic work sector, including comparative information.
This report was prepared by the V.V. Giri National Labour Institute, India, and researchers in the Philippines and Sri Lanka, in collaboration with the International Labour Organization (ILO), and completed in 2015. The study benefited from stakeholder inputs at the Technical Meeting on Labour Migration Structures and Financing in Asia, held on January 31, 2014 in New Delhi, India.
Protection of migrant workers in the recruitment and third party employment process: International standards and guiding principles given by the Private Employment Agencies Convention, 1997 (No. 181) and Private Employment Agencies Recommendation, 1997 (No. 188). The Private Employment Agencies Convention, 1997 (No. 181) and the Private Employment Agencies Recommendation, 1997 (No. 188) are legal instruments developed by the International Labour Organization’s (ILO) tripartite constituents (i.e., governments, employers, and workers) that set out the international minimum standards and guiding principles with regard to the regulation of private employment agencies and the protection of workers who use the services of these agencies. This booklet provides readers with information about the key provisions of Convention No. 181 and Recommendation No. 188. The information may be utilized by member States of the ILO to reinforce their efforts to regulate private employment agencies and protect migrant workers through the ratification of Convention No. 181 and the development of national legislation.
This report assesses the recent changes to labour migration policy in Malaysia and provides recommendations for further strengthening of the governance framework.
This report analyzes the institutions and structures that govern labor migration in Asia. It considers the important role of governments and other stakeholders in both labor-destination countries such as Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, and labor-sending countries such as India, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Key issues are the extent to which these structures provide an orderly process for the movement of people between countries and whether the rights and the welfare of workers are protected.
The Asia-Pacific Migration Report 2015: Migrants' Contributions to Development, produced by the Asia-Pacific Regional Thematic Working Group on International Migration, including Human Trafficking, provides an insight into how labour migration, the dominant migration trend in the Asia-Pacific region, can contribute to development in countries of origin and destination in the Asia-Pacific region. It reviews the main migration trends in the Asia-Pacific region; considers how migrants impact on GDP growth, employment, and wages in countries of destination; and considers how the positive impacts of migration can be maximized, while minimizing the negative trends. In general, it finds that migration is a benefit to countries of origin, destination, and migrants themselves; however, further contributions are hampered by the vulnerability of migrant workers to exploitation. It calls for migration policies and forms of international cooperation that are harmonized with development priorities and international human rights and labour standards to ensure that migration is a benefit for all.
Internal Labour Migration in Myanmar: Building an evidence-base on patterns in migration, human trafficking and forced labour
This report presents the results of a survey conducted in mid-2015 among 7,295 internal labour migrants across all 14 states/regions in Myanmar. The respondents were interviewed about jobs in 13 industries in the private sector, including construction, mining, agriculture, manufacturing, fishing, forestry, domestic work and others. Analysis of the survey data points to patterns in the recruitment, migration, working and living conditions among respondents, as well as indicators of abuse and exploitation imposed on workers by employers and recruiters.