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Managing Labour Migration in ASEAN : Concerns for Women Migrant Workers

Managing Labour Migration in ASEAN : Concerns for Women Migrant Workers

“We asked for guest workers. We got human beings”. This well-known aphorism by the Swiss writer, Max Frisch, has a worrying corollary: if migrant workers are seen merely as human resources, and not human beings, with rights, responsibilities, and diverse needs and capabilities, they may be excluded from protections under labour, migration and trafficking laws and policies, and their contributions to development may be minimized and invisibilized. Many migrant workers who are affected by these protection gaps are women - especially young women who are increasingly migrating independently to support themselves and their families. 1 As discussed below, women migrant workers face unique risks and challenges throughout the migration cycle that must be addressed via gender-sensitive, rights-based labour migrant governance. 2 Although this introduction gives an overview of temporary labour migration across the Asia-Pacific and Arab States regions, the report will focus on labour migration management in the Association of South-east Asian Nations (ASEAN.) Member States of ASEAN, as of September 2012, are: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam.

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Labor Migration in Asia: Increasing the Development Impact of Migration through Finance and Technology

Labor Migration in Asia: Increasing the Development Impact of Migration through Finance and Technology

This book documents labor migration trends in Asia and looks at how finance and technology can aid the positive impact of migration on home countries. As diasporas increase, governments have reached out to citizens abroad to provide them with financial instruments. Remittance channels have long been consolidated, but financial technology is changing how migrants remit—reducing fees and opening opportunities for new actors. One occupation driving labor migration, and incurring its own challenges, is work in information technology (IT). This book examines some of the latest developments in financial products and technology aimed at labor migrants from and in Asia, and discerns the factors determining the success of mobile IT workers from India. The four chapters in this book draw on issues raised and discussed during the Seventh Roundtable on Labor Migration in Asia: Finance and Technology to Increase the Positive Impact of Migration on Home Countries, held in Manila on 18–19 January 2017. The event brought together regional experts and policy makers and was organized by the Asian Development Bank Institute, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the International Labour Organization, and the Asian Development Bank. The book’s introductory chapter reviews recent regional migration trends. Two statistical annexes provide an overview of migration flows within Asia and between Asia and other regions.

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Gender and Labour Migration in Asia

Gender and Labour Migration in Asia

Globally, the landscape of international migration has become increasingly diversified as a result of broader changes in the global economy in addition to policy shifts in recent years. Over the last 30 years, Asia has been a region of movement and migration whether first to the Gulf countries in the 1970s or to the booming Asian tiger economies in the late 1980s. However, what has developed especially since the 1990s has been a “gendered migration process.” The increased visibility of women as labour migrants in the region has brought a number of economic and social issues to the forefront. Furthermore, the vulnerability of male migrants in terms of rights, access to services and the change in gender roles is another issue highlighted, yet under researched. Gender and Labour Migration in Asia, which contains country chapters on Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, and China, aims to place gender on the labour migration and development agenda in Asia.

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International Migration, Health and Human Rights

International Migration, Health and Human Rights

In this publication, the World Health Organization (WHO), the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) explore the multifaceted health and human rights challenges that migrants face and report on recent developments in this area. The aim of this publication is to provide all stakeholders with a reference on key health and human rights issues in the context of international migration. It is meant to provide inspiration to policymakers to devise migration policies and programmes that are guided by public health considerations and human rights imperatives, with a view to protecting the human rights and improving the health of both migrants and the communities in which they live. Given the complex interlinkages among the domains of human rights, health and international migration and the widely differing national and regional circumstances, this publication does not try to make broad recommendations. Instead it reflects on the developments that have occurred over recent years and attempts to stimulate debate and bring attention to migration related health matters by using a human rights-based approach. It argues that the realization of the rights of migrants is a sound public health practice that benefits all and provides new information, accomplishments and challenges with regard to international migration, health and human rights. It examines the effects of the migration process on migrant health, as well as the protection offered to migrants through human rights instruments. The publication does not focus in any way on the migration of health workers, but instead covers migrants in general, regardless of occupation, skill level and legal status during migration. The first section of this publication provides an overview of contemporary migration patterns, scope and trends. The second section discusses the human right to health and other relevant human rights in the context of health and migration. Section Three considers the various ways in which the health of migrants is affected throughout the course of the migration process, from the initial decision to move, during the journey itself, to reception in the new community and until the potential return. Examples illustrate the challenges faced by migrants, policymakers, health planners, international organizations and other stakeholders and demonstrate efforts and developments that can stimulate future approaches to improving the health of migrants. Annexes provide a glossary, as well as a list of international instruments relevant to the discussion on health, human rights and migration.

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Assessing the Climate Change Environmental Degradation and Migration Nexus in South Asia

Assessing the Climate Change Environmental Degradation and Migration Nexus in South Asia

South Asia, comprising eight countries including Bangladesh, Maldives and Nepal, is affected by a range of natural disasters including floods, glacial lake outburst floods, storm surges, droughts, cyclones and heavy precipitation. These disasters take a huge toll as they displace thousands of people every year. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has predicted that slow-onset and sudden-onset disasters will increase in severity and frequency, threatening lives and livelihoods across the region. To provide evidence to this issue and assess these trends, the International Organization for Migration has produced an assessment study on climate change, environmental degradation and migration in South Asia. The study contains a review of literature and policies, as well as findings from field research conducted in Bangladesh, Maldives and Nepal. To ensure that climate migration is comprehensively addressed, the study also contains model plans of action ‒ developed after a consultative process at the national level ‒ that can be implemented.

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LABOUR MIGRATION AS COMPLEMENTARY PATHWAYS FOR REFUGEES IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC

LABOUR MIGRATION AS COMPLEMENTARY PATHWAYS FOR REFUGEES IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC

This working paper examines whether legal labour migration schemes can be opened to humanitarian migrants who may otherwise become targets for migrant smugglers.

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From evidence to action: Facilitating South-South labour migration for development

From evidence to action: Facilitating South-South labour migration for development

Human mobility is an age-old phenomenon that has become an important issue in political and development debates. However, the focus is biased towards South-North movements of migrants, while South-South migration stocks are about as numerous. This document was prepared by the ACP Observatory as the background paper for a meeting on South-South labour migration organized in Abuja in October 2011 by the Governments of Nigeria and Switzerland in the framework of the Global Forum on Migration and Development. The document looks at major challenges and opportunities of South-South labour migration and identified avenues for increased cooperation aimed at harnessing the benefits of South-South labour migration for migrants and countries of origin and destination.

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Migration and the United Nations Post-2015 Development Agenda

Migration and the United Nations Post-2015 Development Agenda

As the target date for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) nears in 2015, the international community is faced with both the challenge and the opportunity of formulating the next global development agenda. Although migration was not factored into the MDGs, it plays an integral role in the most crucial development questions facing the world today, including: how to generate inclusive growth and create employment for a growing world population; how to manage new global risks, such as vulnerability to shocks and disasters, and adaptation to climate change; and how to mobilize financing for development in a world of decreasing aid budgets. Migration and the United Nations Post-2015 Development Agenda gathers together recent research findings outlining the links between migration and development and proposing how migration can best be factored into the future development framework, offering a timely contribution to the argument for migration’s inclusion in the coming development agenda.

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South-South labour Mobility in the Pacific: An assessment

South-South labour Mobility in the Pacific: An assessment

Labour migration within the Pacific region has not been studied in depth despite the existing arrangements promoting the temporal movement of workers. Evidence suggests that there is a shortage of skilled and semi-skilled labour force in the region in particular professional areas, which has led to the development of international labour mobility schemes. This report identifies key strengths and weaknesses of these processes in order to improve the circulation of skills to promote human development. In particular, labour mobility arrangements should rely on a more accurate analysis of the situation to match shortages with labour surpluses and encourage a more balanced approach for the movement of natural persons.

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Notes on migration and development in the global South: Emerging issues and responses

Notes on migration and development in the global South: Emerging issues and responses

The ACP Observatory on Migration has compiled in this thematic report thirteen background notes looking at innovative aspects of South–South migration. Based upon research carried out during three years, these documents analyse emerging aspects of migration in ACP countries. Four major approaches are covered: Setting the scene on South–South migration; labour migration, remittances and development; the social and cultural side of South–South migration; and the vulnerabilities and challenges faced by migrants. The chapters of this report include an overview of available information on each topic as well as innovative policy responses implemented in ACP countries. The objective is to inform the public debate on the latests trends of South–South migration and to promote discussions on potential measures and opportunities available to overcome present and future challenges in migration governance.

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International healthcare worker migration in Asia Pacific: International policy responses

International healthcare worker migration in Asia Pacific: International policy responses

The growth of the international migration of health workers in recent decades has taken place in the context of the transnationalisation of healthcare provision as well as of governance and policy responses. This paper examines international policy responses to cross‐border health worker migration in the Asia Pacific region. These include multilateral (global and regional) and bilateral policy agreements, policy dialogue and programmes of action in relation to key issues of ethical recruitment, ‘circular’ migration and labour rights and key themes of health workforce planning and management. The paper brings original new analysis of international datasets and secondary data to bear on the pressing and important questions of what international policy initiatives and responses are at work in the Asia Pacific region, and what these mean for the nature of migration governance in the region. The paper's focus routes the evidence and argument towards current research and policy debates about the relationship between health worker migration, health worker shortages and poor health outcomes. In this, the paper brings new insights into the analysis of the international policy ‘universe’ through its emphasis on multiple and intersecting cross‐border institutions, initiatives and actors operating across different scales. Coherent national and international strategies for integrated health worker migration governance and policy need to incorporate these insights, and the paper considers their implications for current strategies to attain universal health care and improved health outcomes in Asia Pacific and beyond. Publication cover image Volume59, Issue1 April 2018 Pages 92-106 Figures References Related Information Metrics Details © 2018 The Authors. Asia Pacific Viewpoint published by Victoria University of Wellington and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

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Shining new light on the UN Migrant Workers Convention  Category: Edited collections

Shining new light on the UN Migrant Workers Convention Category: Edited collections

The UN Migrant Workers Convention is the most comprehensive international treaty in the field of migration and human rights. Adopted in 1990 and in force since 2003, it establishes the minimum standards of human rights protection to which migrant workers and members of their families are entitled. However, it is the least well known of the core international human rights instruments and has so far been ratified by only 51 states. This volume shines new light on obstacles and opportunities facing the Convention, its added value in international human rights law and its application in selected state parties. It combines the expertise of academics and practitioners, with the contributions of the latter informed by work on policy and advocacy in NGOs, international organisations and specialised agencies.

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Baseline research findings on fishers and seafood workers in Thailand

Baseline research findings on fishers and seafood workers in Thailand

The ILO Ship to Shore Rights Project (funded by the European Union) assessed working conditions in the fishing and seafood industry in Thailand. The research covers both fishing and seafood processing including aquaculture.

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Domestic workers and employers in the Arab States: Promising practices and innovative models for a productive working relationship

The domestic work sector in the Middle East is constantly evolving. No longer are domestic workers employed only to clean homes – modern households are increasingly expecting domestic workers to support the care of children during critical stages of development, aid the elderly to live with increased autonomy, and assist in chores and household management. Important progress has been made over the last few years by a number of countries in the Middle East towards legislative change to protect migrant workers. Yet implementation and enforcement remain major challenges, and continuing and credible allegations of abuse and fraudulent behavior continue to plague the sector. This paper presents a number of interesting practices from countries such as Singapore, Jordan, Canada, Ireland, Saudi Arabia and others which could be a useful tool for policymakers in developing strong regulations and enforcement mechanisms to achieve justice and employment satisfaction for both workers and their employers.

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Migration in the 2030 Agenda

Migration in the 2030 Agenda

In September 2015, the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda was adopted, and for the first time, migration was included in mainstream global development policy. With the objective of communicating how IOM identifies migration in the 2030 Agenda to stakeholders and the wider public, and to shed light on the complex challenges and opportunities that accompany the migration-related targets, this IOM publication aims to showcase how different areas of migration are addressed in the Sustainable Development Goals. Table of contents: Foreword Acknowledgements Introduction Diaspora engagement and the Sustainable Development Goals Implementation of the migration, environment and climate change-related commitments of the 2030 Agenda Migration and health in the Sustainable Development Goals Achieving gender equality through migration governance:Opportunities and solutions in support of the Sustainable Development Agenda The Sustainable Development Goals and labour mobility: A case study of Armenia Migrants and cities: Challenges and opportunities Migration and environmental change in the Sustainable Development Goals The Sustainable Development Goals in the prevention and resolution of displacement Children and migration in the Sustainable Development Goals

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More than numbers - How migration data can deliver real-life benefits for migrants and governments

More than numbers - How migration data can deliver real-life benefits for migrants and governments

Produced by the Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC) of the International Organization for Migration (IOM), in collaboration with McKinsey & Company, the report More Than Numbers takes us beyond the well-known challenges of migration data and illustrates its potential value. The authors estimate that better data could boost benefits of migration by at least USD 35 billion based on a number of case examples. The report shows how data enables policymakers to protect migrants in vulnerable situations, fill labour market shortages, improve integration, manage asylum procedures, ensure the humane return of migrants ordered to leave and increase remittances (to name only a few). This report urges governments to put data at the centre of the debate on migration. It describes the value at stake across various dimensions of migration and provides guidance on where investments in data should be directed to deliver the most impactful outcomes. The time to invest in better migration data is now. In 2016, countries agreed to start negotiations, leading towards the adoption of a global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration in 2018. Just one year before, migration was included in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. As countries have joined together on a path towards increased cooperation and action on migration, investment in data will be crucial for its success.

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Report on Protection of Human Rights and Labour Migration

Report on Protection of Human Rights and Labour Migration

Labour migration has been an important force in supporting the growth and development of the Southeast Asian region. Unfortunately, in spite of migrant workers’ vital role in increasing the region’s labour market efficiency they are often subjected to abuses during recruitment and employment and unable to make use of the social protection benefits to which they are entitled. This situation is worsen as the data collection on migrant workers complaints within Southeast Asia are very limited particularly in terms of the remedies available. The Center for Southeast Asian Studies (CSEAS), supported by the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands has been filling this gap – based upon extensive delivery assistance to migrant workers redress for grievances, detailed data have been collection on almost 200 complaint cases throughout Southeast Asia. These data are immensely valuable in providing Southeast Asian officials, ASEAN as an institution, and the general public for a greater understanding of the effectiveness of mechanisms available to migrant workers. We hope that the analysis of the data will help inform interventions to strengthen the relevant legal and institutional frameworks in ASEAN countries.

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Labour Migration in Asia: trends and developments

Labour Migration in Asia: trends and developments

8th ADBI-OECD-ILO Roundtable on Labour Migration in Asia: Building partnerships for effectively managing labour migration: lessons from Asian countries for the UN Global Compact on Migration Jointly organized by: Asian Development Bank Institute, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development International Labour Organization Hosted by: Human Resource Development (HRD) Korea

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Economic re-integration of returning migrants in the construction sector in India

Economic re-integration of returning migrants in the construction sector in India

A report examining reintegration of Indian migrants who work in the construction industry in the Gulf.

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Policy Briefs on Internal Migration in Southeast Asia

Policy Briefs on Internal Migration in Southeast Asia

Internal migration is a defining megatrend of our time: it brings with it the potential for vast economic growth and sustainable development, but until governments have the information they need to engage in evidence-based policymaking, the positive transformational potential of internal migration will remain unrealized, and migrants will be unable to fulfil their aspirations. Unfortunately, the available data on internal migration in Southeast Asia is often sparse or not comparable between countries, rendering analysis of regional internal migration difficult. The Policy Briefs on Internal Migration in Southeast Asia, produced jointly by UNESCO, UNDP, IOM, and UN-Habitat, summarize currently available research on internal migration across 9 Southeast Asian states, and provide recommendations to policymakers and researchers on the steps that need to be taken to fill currently available data gaps, from recommendations on research priorities to specific policy initiatives that will help migrants contribute to their communities and nations. These Policy Briefs also represent the final outcome of the first stage of a research project on internal migration in Southeast Asia, jointly undertaken by UNESCO, UNDP, IOM and UN-Habitat in collaboration with in-country researchers and authorities, to understand internal migrants' experiences and develop inclusive policy responses to internal migration. The Policy Briefs are comprised of 10 separate briefs: the first brief provides an overview of key trends and challenges relating to internal migration across the region, as well a set of recommendations to policymakers and researchers. The following country briefs summarize available data on internal migration across 9 states in Southeast Asia: Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Timor-Leste, and Viet Nam.

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