This report analyzes the institutions and structures that govern labor migration in Asia. It considers the important role of governments and other stakeholders in both labor-destination countries such as Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, and labor-sending countries such as India, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Key issues are the extent to which these structures provide an orderly process for the movement of people between countries and whether the rights and the welfare of workers are protected.
The Asia-Pacific Migration Report 2015: Migrants' Contributions to Development, produced by the Asia-Pacific Regional Thematic Working Group on International Migration, including Human Trafficking, provides an insight into how labour migration, the dominant migration trend in the Asia-Pacific region, can contribute to development in countries of origin and destination in the Asia-Pacific region. It reviews the main migration trends in the Asia-Pacific region; considers how migrants impact on GDP growth, employment, and wages in countries of destination; and considers how the positive impacts of migration can be maximized, while minimizing the negative trends. In general, it finds that migration is a benefit to countries of origin, destination, and migrants themselves; however, further contributions are hampered by the vulnerability of migrant workers to exploitation. It calls for migration policies and forms of international cooperation that are harmonized with development priorities and international human rights and labour standards to ensure that migration is a benefit for all.
The Tripartite Action to Protect the Rights of Migrants Workers within and from the Greater Mekong Sub-region (the GMS TRIANGLE project) aims to strengthen the formulation and implementation of recruitment and labour protection policies and practices, to ensure safer migration resulting in decent work. The project is operational in six countries: Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. In each country, tripartite constituents (government, workers’ and employers’ organizations) are engaged in each of the GMS TRIANGLE project objectives - strengthening policy and legislation, building capacity of stakeholders and providing services to migrant workers. These goals are interdependent, with policy advocacy and capacity building activities driven by the voices, needs and experiences of workers, employers and service providers.
Domestic Work Policy Brief no. 9 This document is part of a series of briefs on issues and approaches to promoting decent work for domestic workers. This policy brief seeks to: - Highlight the trends of migration for domestic work and the specific needs and vulnerabilities of migrant domestic workers; - Identify the main issues and challenges in improving the governance of labour migration policy for this specific category of workers; - Present some emerging practices in addressing these challenges throughout the migration cycle.
This document is part of a series of briefs on issues and approaches to promoting decent work for domestic workers.
Analytical report on the international labour migration statistics database in ASEAN: Improving data collection for evidence-based policy-making
The report provides a broad-based quantitative analysis of the current and emerging trends in international labour migration into, from, and among the ten Member States of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The report analyses some of the most common drivers underpinning these trends and argues that labour migration is likely to increase within the region over the short and medium term. The report’s key findings are drawn from the national level data collected through the International Labour Organization’s (ILO) International Labour Migration Statistics (ILMS) Database in ASEAN. Its recommendations draw upon these findings as well as the available meta-data, to identify solutions and key directions for building a stronger evidence base to help improve policies on international labour migration in ASEAN.
The ILO undertook this study with the Global Alliance Against Trafficking in Women (GAATW). It explores whether Nepal’s age ban deterred younger women from migrating for domestic work and improved working conditions for women migrant domestic workers over 30 years of age. It also explores to what extent the age ban and other bans have had unintended consequences for women, including an increase in irregular migration and trafficking in persons. Finally, it highlights steps the women themselves propose be taken to improve their migration experiences.
A Migrant Welfare Fund (MWF) is a self-sustaining mechanism that enables the governments of countries of origin to provide additional welfare benefits and services to their migrant workers at the countries of destination, using a fund grown from the initial capital investments of foreign employers, recruitment agencies and/or migrant workers.
The report focuses on how migration is shaping cities and how the situation of migrants in cities – how they live, work and shape their habitat – helps to reveal the close connection between human mobility and urban development.The report reveals that nearly one in five of all migrants live in the world’s 20 largest cities and in many of these cities migrants represent over a third or more of the population. According to the report, over 54 per cent of people across the globe were living in urban areas in 2014. The current urban population of 3.9 billion is expected to grow to some 6.4 billion by 2050. Migration is driving much of the increase in urbanization, making cities much more diverse places in which to live.
Blog post by Akka Rimon and Sophia Kagan on the Development Policy Centre Blog, DevPolicyBlog
The 8th ASEAN Forum on Migrant Labour which carried the theme “Empowering the ASEAN Community through Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers” was held on 26-27 October 2015 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
The International Labour Organization’s (ILO) ASEAN TRIANGLE Project, funded by Canada, launched the International Labour Migration Statistics (ILMS) Database in December 2014. The statistical tables presented in this booklet include data on migration and labour migration in the ASEAN region. The sources used include UNDESA, Trends in international migrant stock, Rev. 2013, World Bank, Global Bilateral Migration Database 2015 and the ILMS Database ILOSTAT (Special collections: Migration)
Migration and Remittances: Recent Developments and Outlook, October 2015
Parliamentarians have a critical role to play to ensure a meaningful, balanced and informed response to migration. They are first of all responsible for adopting adequate laws on migration to give effect to international obligations entered into by the state under the international treaty framework, in particular with respect to human rights norms and labour standards. Parliamentarians, as well as governments, can and should promote fair and effective policies in order to maximize the benefits of migration while addressing the real challenges that host, transit and origin countries and migrants face. The Inter-Parliamentary Union, the International Labour Office and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, according to their respective mandates, have decided to produce this information tool that should help parliamentarians to achieve the above objective. The handbook offers responses to fundamental questions on migration, such as those concerned with its root causes and possible responses in terms of good policies and practices, as well as the challenges, both for migrants and for countries, in relation to national well-being, development and social cohesion. The handbook proposes a balanced approach to make effective laws and policies that address the human rights of migrants and the governance of migration. The handbook reflects the long experience of our three cooperating organizations and our constituents worldwide. It contains examples of measures and practices relating to migration that have worked successfully. It is intended to be useful not only for parliamentarians, but also for government officials and civil servants as well as for social partners and civil society. The ultimate objective of this Handbook is to promote fair and rights-based migration policies, aligned with international norms and standards, in the interest of all migrants as well as host, transit and origin countries.
This Policy Brief provides an overview of the social protection mechanisms available to women migrant workers in ASEAN, identifying good practices and making recommendations for improvements. The Policy Brief highlights the importance of the portability of social protection and the challenges for women migrant workers in claiming social protection from employers and states. The right to social protection is enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), Article 22, and recalled in the ASEAN Cebu Declaration on Migrant Workers, 2007.1 Since the formation of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in 1919, there have been 31 Conventions and 24 Recommendations adopted to make social protection a reality for all. The most recent instrument is the Social Protection Floor Recommendation, 2012 (No. 202), which Cambodia, Indonesia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam have already taken measures to implement. However, the reality of accessing social protection remains especially challenging for women migrant workers who have different needs to men and often work in undocumented and informal employment that is rarely covered by government social protection schemes.
This Policy Brief considers skills supply and demand in ASEAN in relation to women migrant workers, making recommendations to policy-makers, development partners, social partners and civil society that can improve access for women to skills development opportunities and better jobs. With ASEAN economic integration planning to introduce freer movement of skilled labour, there is a need to standardize and recognize qualifications and skills across the region to ensure efficient and mutually beneficial labour migration. Low and medium skilled labour migration is also predicted to grow, driven by pushes and pulls that result from economic, development and demographic disparities. As the drivers of economic and job growth continue, the informal sector is anticipated to shrink, displacing many workers, most of whom are women employed in low skilled and low paid jobs.1 Better recognition of women’s skills and equal access of women to skills development and skilled opportunities will ensure that women migrant workers benefit from ASEAN economic integration rather than fall victim to it.
There has long been a trend to consider the contribution of labour migrants in terms of the economic benefit that they can bring to development. As the autonomous labour migration of women has increased so too has the interest in the development benefit that they bring. This interest has been primarily economic, focusing on how women migrant workers’ remittances – money sent home – can contribute to economic development. This Policy Brief takes a broader view of women’s labour migration in ASEAN and considers both the economic and non-economic contributions that they make. Recognising that women labour migrants face gender specific challenges and barriers, this Policy Brief provides recommendations to policy-makers on how to ensure the potential of women migrant workers is maximized to benefit the individual migrant, her family and her community while avoiding simplifying women migrant workers as tools of economic development.
This Policy Brief looks at labour inspection in ASEAN in relation to women migrant workers, making recommendations to policy makers, development partners, employers, workers’ organisations, and civil society on the initiatives needed to ensure the implementation of labour standards for women migrant workers. In seeking to promote and protect the rights of women migrant workers in ASEAN, a strong and effective labour inspectorate is required to ensure that working conditions are in accordance with minimum national standards and are equally applied for men and women, migrant and national workers. Labour inspections are a vital tool for preventing and combatting violations of human rights committed against migrants in the workplace.